Health Spectrum

marine-Cultural-health-spectrum

The health ratings displayed on this page is an example only, the heath ratings will be updated when monitoring is completed at the end of 2021.

Mahinga kai

Overall Health 30%

Traditional food resources are important indicators of marine ecosystem health. Species like kuku (green-lipped mussels) and koura (crayfish) are key indicator species for mana whenua of Ahuriri.

Below are the results of each of the Tohu Whāiti associated with this Tohu Matua. These Tohu Whāiti collectively inform the overall health of this Tohu Matua.

For each Tohu Whāiti we score qualitative and quantitative indicators called Pātai Inenga, we use these score to determine the health of each Tohu Whāiti. The ratings below are on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being very weak and 10 being very strong.

Kuku

Kuku are a valued mahinga kai species and considered a staple in the local diet historically by mana whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to gather a feed of Kuku?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and visibility is always bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of kuku, and visibility is reasonable. I can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get kuku from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get kuku from, plenty of kai ,visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Kuku sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from, visibility is always bad.
1-3 Hard- only know one or two spots, only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad.
4-6 Ok- know a few spots, pretty good numbers, visibility is reasonable.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get kuku from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get kuku from, plenty of kuku, visibility is always good.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Kuku?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of kuku life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of kuku is important in knowing when and when not to harvest.

QUANTITATIVE

Are the Kuku beds growing, shrinking or staying the same?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Measure and quantify the area of mussels on Pānia boil, reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. (2 dive teams, underwater transect to confirm the mussel bed measurements, use of quadrates for annual monitoring.

Method for Scoring
0 = Decline in recruitment or % cover.
1-3 10-30% increase in cover.
4-6 40-60% increase in cover.
7-9 70-90% increase in cover.
10 100% increase in cover/kuku growing on top of each other; another layer thick/deep.

It important that we understand whether the population of kuku are being impacted.

QUANTITATIVE

Are the Kuku healthy? (growth, stress, contaminants)

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. Annual deployment of cages during dredging. Routine collection of kuku from same spot to assess patterns in condition over time.

Method for Scoring
0 = Decline in weight and contaminated.
1-3, 10-30% increase in condition. >6 e.coli/entero present.
4-6, 40-60% increase in condition. 2-6 e.coli/entero present.
7-9, 70-90% increase in condition, not present e.coli/entero.
10, 100% increase in condition. Not present e.coli/entero.

It is important that our kuku are healthy for consumption and as an indicator of the environment.

QUANTITATIVE

Is the population of Kuku breeding well? (Recruitment/spat abundance)

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. Deployment of spat collectors monthly over spawning season.

Method for Scoring
0 = Decline or no recruitment.
1-3 10-30% increase in recruitment.
4-6 40-60% increase in recruitment.
7-9 70-90% increase in recruitment.
10 100% increase in recruitment.

It is important to understand the recruitment rates for the future population of Kuku.

Kōura (Crayfish)

Kōura are a valued mahinga kai species and considered a delicacy by mana whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to gather a feed of Kōura?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and visibility is always bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of kōura and visibility is reasonable. I can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get kōura from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get kōura from, plenty of kōura, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Kōura sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from, visibility is always bad.
1-3 Hard- only know one or two spots, only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad.
4-6 Ok- know a few spots, pretty good numbers, visibility is reason.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get kuku from, plenty of kōura, visibility is mostly good.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get kōura from, plenty of kōura, visibility is always good.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Kōura?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of kōura life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of kōura is important in knowing when and when not to harvest.

QUALITATIVE

Diving observations

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Use the percent score from Mana Moana Ohanga, diver observation changes, qualitative pātai.

Method for Scoring
0, 0-10% of the overall score of MM Ohanga, dive observation changes, pātai.
1-3, 10-30% of the overall score of MM Ohanga, dive observation changes, pātai.
4-6, 40-60% of the overall score of MM Ohanga, dive observation changes, pātai.
7-9, 70-90% of the overall score of MM Ohanga, dive observation changes, pātai.
10, 100% of the overall score of MM Ohanga, dive observation changes, pātai.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the Kōura population of Pānia, Rangatira Reef, and Town Reef?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Use DOC kōura survey methodology.

Method for Scoring
To be determined by Kaimātai Moana Rōpū.

Kōura are an important mahinga kai species for the surounding reefs, namely Pānia. Maintaining the population of Kōura ensures kai for the next generation.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the Kōura pot harvesting pressure?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Quarterly survey of cray pot floats.

Method for Scoring
0, > 150 pots
1-3 100-150 pots
4-6 < 100 Pots
7-9 < 20 pots
10 = no pots

Understanding the pressure on Pānia through cray potting will identify if there is over fishing pressure.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the Juvenile recruitment abundance?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology.

Method for Scoring
To be determined by kaimātai moana rōpū.

Understanding the juvenile abundance will provide us with knowledge as to whether the population of crayfish is being impacted.

Pāua

Pāua are a valued mahinga kai species and considered a delicacy by mana whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to go out and gather Pāua?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and visibility is always bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of pāua, and visibility is reasonable. I can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get pāua from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get pāua from, plenty of pāua, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Pāua sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and visibility is always bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of pāua, and visibility is reasonable. I can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get pāua from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get pāua from, plenty of pāua, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Pāua?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of pāua life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of pāua is important in knowing when and when not harvest.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the Pāua population of Pānia, Rangatira Reef, and Town Reef?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring.

Pāua were an important mahinga kai species for the surrounding reefs, namely Pānia. Maintaining the population of pāua ensures kai for the next generation.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the Pāua harvesting pressure?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring.

Understanding the pressure on Hardinge Rd Reef will identify if there is an over fishing pressure.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the abundance of Juvenile recruitment?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. Snorkle with whānau along Hardinge Rd. Use of pāua houses for other reefs.

Method for Scoring
To be determined by kaimātai rōpū.

Understanding the juvenile abundance will provide us with knowledge as to whether the population of pāua is being impacted.

Kina

Kina are a valued mahinga kai species and considered a delicacy by Mana whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to go out and gather Kina?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and visibility is always bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of kina, and visibility is reasonable. I can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get kina from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get kina from, plenty of kina, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Kina sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app

Method for Scoring
 0, Very hard- don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from, visibility is always bad. Need a boat and be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- only know one or two spots, only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. Need a boat and be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- know a few spots, pretty good numbers, visibility is reasonable. Can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get kina from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get kina from, plenty of kai, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Kina?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of kina life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little to knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of kina is important in knowing when and when not harvest.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the health of Kina, Biomonitoring of condition indices?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring.

Understanding the health of kina will provide us with knowledge as to whether the kina are being impacted.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the abundance of kina? (diver transect survey along Hardinge Rd)

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Use DoC link in score column. Complete kina count from Cawthron annual survey results.

Method for Scoring
0, No Kina
1-3 < 10 Kina
4-6 10-20 Kina
7-9 20-30 Kina
10 Excellent > 30 Kina

Understanding the abundance of kina will provide us with knowledge as to whether the population of kina is being impacted.

Pupu, Pipi

Pipi are a valued mahinga kai species and considered a delicacy by Māna whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to go out and gather Pupu/ Pipi?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and I need a boat.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left and I need a boat.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of Pupu/Pipi, can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of kai, can access from shore as well. 10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of kai, can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of Pupu/Pipi, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Pupu/Pipi sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
 0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and I need a boat.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left and I need a boat.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of Pupu/Pipi, can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of kai, can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of kai, can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Pupu/Pipi?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of Pupu/Pipi life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of kuku is important in knowing when and when not to harvest.

QUALITATIVE

Is Pupu/Pipi safe to eat from your mahinga kai areas?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and polluted.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, and polluted.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of Pupu/Pipi and they’re safe to eat.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of kai and safe.
10 Excellent – plenty of spots to get Pupu/Pipi from, plenty of kai and really safe to eat.

QUANTITATIVE

How healthy are our Pipi and Pupu?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. Data analysed from the HBRC whanga data set.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring.

Understanding the health of pipi and pupu will provide us with knowledge as to whether they are being impacted.

Ika (Patiki)

Ika/Patiki are a valued mahinga kai species and considered a delicacy by Māna whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to go out and gather Ika?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from and visibility is always bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left, visibility a lot of the time is bad. I need a boat and need to be a good diver.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of Ika, and visibility is reasonable. I can access from shore as well.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get Ika from, plenty of kai, visibility is mostly good. Can access from shore as well.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get Ika from, plenty of Ika, visibility is always good. Can access from shore as well.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Ika sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional harvested from, visibility is always bad. Need a boat and good knowledge.
1-3 Hard- only know one or two spots, only a small amount left.
4-6 Ok- know a few spots, pretty good numbers, easy access.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get ika, plenty of kai, easy access.
10 Excellent – plenty of spots to get ika from, plenty of ika, easy access.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Ika?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of ika life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little to knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of ika is important in knowing when and when not harvest.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the diversity of fish species?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. Data analysed from MPI and HBRC, and eDNA samples.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring.

Understanding the diversity will provide us with knowledge as to whether the ika is being impacted.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the Abundance of Ika?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology. Monthly trawl data plus eDNA samples. Data analysed from MPI and Trawl research data.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring. Monthly trawl survey.

Understanding the abundance will provide us with knowledge as to whether the population of fish is being impacted.

Karengo

Karengo is a valued mahinga kai species and considered a delicacy by mana whenua.

QUALITATIVE

How easy is it to go out and gather Karengo?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app.

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of Karengo.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get Karengo from, plenty of kai. Access is easy.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get Karengo from, plenty of kai. Can access easily from road access to shore.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge of traditional or current mahinga kai Karengo sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey whānau using app

Method for Scoring
0, Very hard- I don’t know many spots, mostly gone from where they were traditional.
1-3 Hard- I only know one or two spots, there is only a small amount left.
4-6 Ok- I know a few spots, with a reasonable amount of Karengo.
7-9 Good – plenty of areas to get Karengo from, plenty of kai. Access is easy.
10 Excellent- plenty of spots to get Karengo from, plenty of Karengo. Can access easily from road access to shore.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you hold knowledge about the reproductive cycle and maramataka for Karengo?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Surveys with mana whenua whānau on knowledge of Karengo life cycle & Maramataka.

Method for Scoring
0 = No knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
1-3 little to knowledge of lifecycle & Maramataka.
4-6 Average knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
7-9 Good knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.
10 Excellent knowledge of life cycle & Maramataka.

Understanding the life cycle and maramataka of karengo is important in knowing when and when not harvest.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the population and abundance of Karengo?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Reference video clip for detailed monitoring methodology.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai Moana Rōpū to determine methodology for scoring.

Understanding the abundance of Karengo will provide us with knowledge as to whether Karengo still exists and how rare it is.

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