Health Spectrum

marine-Cultural-health-spectrum

The health ratings displayed on this page is an example only, the heath ratings will be updated when monitoring is completed at the end of 2021.

Hauora

Overall Health 50%

Water quality of the Ahuriri marine environment is an important indicator of health in the marine ecosystem.

Below are the results of each of the Tohu Whāiti associated with this Tohu Matua. These Tohu Whāiti collectively inform the overall health of this Tohu Matua.

For each Tohu Whāiti we score qualitative and quantitative indicators called Pātai Inenga, we use these score to determine the health of each Tohu Whāiti. The ratings below are on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being very weak and 10 being very strong.

Sediment

Sediment compared to all other contaminants entering water is known as the master stressor for all aquatic life.

QUALITATIVE

How do you rate the site for diveability due to sediment/visibility for mahinga kai harvest?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau.

Method for Scoring
0 = <1m visibility.
1-3 (1-1.5m vis) poor vis too bad to see kai.
4-6 (1.5m – 3m) is moderate.
7-9 (>3-6m vis) good.
10 Excellent > 6m vis.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people. It is important to gather baseline information to be aware of the changes in habitat in kai gathering areas and document how they have changed over the years – has any site become unsafe to eat? How does the modern day compare to the historical ability to produce good kai?

QUALITATIVE

Is the kaimoana fit for consumption? E.g. does it taste or smell funny or have too much grit in it.

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau.

Method for Scoring
0 = Area is paru.
1-3 kai quality is poor.
4-6 kai is average/moderate.
7-9 Kai is always good.
10 Kaimoana is Excellent.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people. It is important to gather baseline information to be aware of the changes in habitat in kai gathering areas and document how they have changed over the years – has any site become unsafe to eat? How does the modern day compare to the historical ability to produce good kai?

QUALITATIVE

How do you rate this sites ability to produce good kai?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau.

Method for Scoring
0 = Area is paru.
1-3 kai quality is poor.
4-6 kai is average/moderate.
7-9 Kai is always good.
10 Kaimoana is Excellent.

Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people. It is important to gather baseline information to be aware of the changes in habitat in kai gathering areas and document how they have changed over the years – has any site become unsafe to eat? How does the modern day compare to the historical ability to produce good kai?

QUANTITATIVE

How has tangaroa been impacted by sediment entering the moana?

Health

Trend

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Method for Test
Analyse the turbidity/TSS data on an annual basis.

Method of Scoring
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score post the first year of analysis.

Utilisation of current turbidity/TSS data is an excellent metric to determine diving/kai gathering visibility and effort required to collect a given mahinga kai species. To investigate and understand Turbidity/TSS better at selected sites would allow us to determine habitat stress factor due to quantifying the settling of fine mud particles, which in turn displaces key marine species such as larval recruitment; shellfish, seaweeds.

QUANTITATIVE

How much has tangaroa been negatively impacted by sediment entering the moana. What is the degree of muddiness at each of the sites?

Health

Trend

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Method of Test
Utilise current data sets to determine the degree of fine sediment (silt & sand) on the sea floor.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

It is important to characterise the fine silt baseline and to understand how this is impacting on the food source of key mahinga kai species. Also, to determine the degree of impact on tangaroa through fine silt particles entering the moana.

QUANTITATIVE

Does the current level of heavy metals present a risk to Tangaroa and whānau health?

Health

Trend

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Method of Test
Utilise the existing data sets to determine level of heavy metals in MCA.

Method of Scoring
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

To understand what metals are present and to understand the bioavailability of those metals to our taonga kai gathering species.

QUANTITATIVE

How much sediment accumulation is occurring at our sites and impacts habitat quality, seasonality/annually?

Health

Trend

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Method for Monitoring
Accumulated sediment 12 monthly using sediment plates in specified locations.

Method for Scoring
0 = ≥ 8mm
1-3 = 5-7mm
4-6 = 2-5mm
7-9 = 1-2 mm
10 = < 1mm

Assess the sediment rate in a specific area to understand the impact of sediment on local habitat and key toanga and mahinga kaimoana species.

QUANTITATIVE

Is the amount of accumulated sediment effecting whānau ability to catch kōura while diving?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Diver will undertake test at several sites by scratching the surface 4 times then take sample.

Method for Scoring
0. take sample jar and put in turbidity meter. Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

Whānau have noticed a reduction in visibility on Pānia due to an increase in sediment on the reef, this causes an issue for divers which limits their visibility lowering the likely hood of being able to get a kai.

Algae Bloom

Algae blooms are present each year and pose a health risk to mahinga kai eating.

QUALITATIVE

How often is kai gathering closed due to toxic algae blooms?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau, did you hear of any closures? Or have an understanding of the paralytic shellfish monitoring programme.

Method for Scoring
0 = never heard of it.
1-3 Little knowledge of the paralytic shellfish monitoring.
4-6 heard of it, with limited knowledge of dangers.
7-9 good understanding of the importance to whānau health.
10 = Excellent understanding and awareness.

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) presence in shellfish can cause paralysis and death. The shellfish closures occur annually over winter and spring and whānau need to be aware when and where closures are.

QUALITATIVE

Have you observed any discoloured water patches, foams or scums. If so when (e.g spring) and what colour was it?

Health

Trend

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Using survey tool with whānau, did you see or hear of any algae blooms?

Method for Scoring
0 = wide scale algal bloom covering Ahuriri area, or large extent of foams and scum along the shore.
1-3 several sitings.
4-6 A few sightings.
7-9 only 1 or 2.
10 = no algae blooms or discolouration during winter and spring.

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) presence in shellfish can cause paralysis and death. The shellfish closures occur annually over winter and spring and whānau need to be aware when and where closures are.

QUANTITATIVE

How many kai gathering closures were issued this year?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Paralytic shell poisoning present in shellfish flesh (Kuku) in a 12 month period. How many closures over a 12 month period spanning how many days/weeks?

Method for Scoring
0 = ≥ 6 closures
1-3, 4-5 closures
4-6, 2-3 closures
7-9, 1 closures
10 = no closures

It is important for mana whenua to understand how impacted mahinga kai is from PSP and how common closures are occurring. To determine the degree of risk are our whānau are exposed to from gathering Kai. Also, to inform whānau of which months are riskiest and on what maramataka closures are happening.

QUANTITATIVE

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) phytoplankton species

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Use the score from Mana Tangata Hauora, Shellfish, ‘How many species of toxic algae are there?’- Pātai Ine

Method for Scoring
0, 0-10% of the score of MT Hauora, Shellfish, species of toxic algae.
1-3, 10-30% of the score of MT Hauora, Shellfish, species of toxic algae.
4-6, 40-60% of the score of MT Hauora, Shellfish, species of toxic algae.
7-9, 70-90% of the score of MT Hauora, Shellfish, species of toxic algae.
10, 100% of the score of MT Hauora, Shellfish, species of toxic algae.

It is important to know what species are present in our waters and what health risk they present.

Benthic Community

Benthic communities are largely composed of macroinvertebrates, and crustaceans, which are a key food source for mahinga kai species. These organisms inhabit the bottom substrate of the seabed and play a vital role in maintaining sediment and water quality.

QUANTITATIVE

What is the current biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate community?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Utilise data collected through core samples and dredge tows.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

It is important to identify what invertebrate species are key to sustaining key mahinga kai species and to understand the state of the benthic community. As an example, Is there sufficient invertebrates to support a healthy fishery in the Ahuriri Marine Area, such as paddle crabs for Lemon Fish?

QUANTITATIVE

Can the benthic invertebrate community support an abundance of mahinga kai?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Utilise data collected through core samples and dredge tows.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

It is important to identify what invertebrate species are key to sustaining key mahinga kai species and to understand the state of the benthic community. As an example, Is there sufficient invertebrates to support a healthy fishery in the Ahuriri Marine Area, such as paddle crabs for Lemon Fish?

QUANTITATIVE

How has tangaroa been impacted by sediment entering the moana. What is the degree of muddiness at each of the sites?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Use the score from Mana Moana, Hauora, Sediment muddiness – Pātai Ine.

Methodology for Scoring
0, 0-10% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment Muddiness Pātai Ine.
1-3, 10-30% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment muddiness Pātai Ine.
4-6, 40-60% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment muddiness Pātai Ine.
7-9, 70-90% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment muddiness Pātai Ine.
10, 100% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment muddiness Pātai Ine.

It is important to characterise the fine silt baseline and to understand how this is impacting on the food source of key mahinga kai species. Also, to determine the degree of impact on tangaroa through fine silt particles entering the moana.

QUANTITATIVE

Does the current level of heavy metals present a risk to Tangaroa and whānau health?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Use the averaged percent score from Mana Moana Hauora, quantitative Sediment heavy metals Pātai Ine.

Method for Scoring
0, 0-10% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment heavy metals Pātai Ine.
1-3, 10-30% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment heavy metals Pātai Ine.
4-6, 40-60% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment heavy metals Pātai Ine.
7-9, 70-90% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment heavy metals Pātai Ine.
10, 100% of the overall score of MM quantitative Sediment heavy metals Pātai Ine.

To understand what metals are present and to understand the bioavailability of those metals to our taonga kai gathering species.

Enteroccoci/E.coli

Water contaminated by human or animal excreta may contain a range of pathogenic disease-causing micro-organisms that may pose a health risk and accumulate in shellfish.

QUALITATIVE

Is this place a good spot for a swim?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau.

Method for Scoring
0 paru.
1-3 water looks paru.
4-6 water is pretty good most of the time/average pollution.
7-9 majority good.
10 Excellent high quality excellent clarity.

Immersion is an important cultural practice and tradition to connect with your waiu.

QUALITATIVE

Do you or the whānau ever get mauiui swimming, collecting kai, surfing here?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau.

Method for Scoring
0, Many whānau mauiui.
1-3, Some whānau mauiui.
4-6, Few whānau mauiui.
7-9, Very rare that whānau get mauiui.
10, Whānau never get mauiui.

Immersion is an important cultural practice and tradition to connect with your waiu. Gathering kaimoana is an important traditional practice which maintains our connection to Tangaroa and sustains the people.

QUALITATIVE

Do you get or have you ever got a gunky eye or ear ache after swimming?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Using survey tool with whānau.

Method for Scoring
0, Many whānau mauiui.
1-3, Some whānau mauiui.
4-6, Few whānau mauiui.
7-9, Very rare that whānau get mauiui.
10, Whānau never get mauiui.

Immersion is an important cultural practice and tradition to connect with your waiu.

QUANTITATIVE

How has the presence of faecal bacteria (E. coli) affected mana whenua access to the awa and tangaroa?

Health

Trend

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Method for Test
Analyse the E.coli concentration data set and derive a score based on the 2003 guidelines.

Method f0r Scoring in Summer
0 = >5% over 540 E.coli/100 mL.
1-3 = >20% over 260 E.coli 100 mL.
4-6 = <5% 540 & < 20% 260 E.coli/100 mL.
7-9 = E.coli median < 50 in summer.
10 = 3 yr swimibility category = green i.e. 95th percentile value E.coli/100 mL 0-260.

Swimming site closures occur each summer for a range of seasons from rainfall causing surface water runoff of animal faecal material to enter waterways to sewage ingress during storm events. Closure of swimming areas due to E.coli presence can impact immersion in wai.

QUANTITATIVE

How many warnings/swimming site closures were issued over the summer season?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Count the number of warnings/closures issued by HBRC and the DHB.

Method for Scoring in Summer
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

Swimming site closures occur each summer for a range of seasons from rainfall causing surface water runoff of animal faecal material to enter waterways to sewage ingress during storm events. Closure of swimming areas due to E.coli presence can impact immersion in wai.

QUANTITATIVE

How many samples each summer in breach of amber mode at the sites within the MCHP area?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Determine how many samples were over the amber threshold at each site.

Method for Scoring in Summer
In freshwater the concentration threshold for E. coli is 260 /100 mL and in saltwater its 140 Enterococci / 100 mL. Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

Swimming site closures occur each summer for a range of seasons from rainfall causing surface water runoff of animal faecal material to enter waterways to sewage ingress during storm events. Closure of swimming areas due to E.coli presence can impact immersion in wai.

pH/Salinity

Changes in salinity and pH will affect a wide range of marine biota and therefore toanga and mahinga kai species too will be affected.

QUANTITATIVE

Is the pH concentration at our monitoring sites and research bouys negatively impacting on Tangaora?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Utilise the existing data sets to determine a baseline range seasonally occurring within the MCHP area.

Method for Scoring
Determined post analysis. Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

Is Ocean acidification present in Hawke’s Bay? Acidification affects all marine life on some level and particular has negative impact on shellfish. Over the past million years the pH of the surface ocean has been relatively stable and slightly alkaline at 8.2 due to the carbonate buffer system. This is a series of reactions, in which dissolved CO2 is converted to bicarbonate using carbonate as a buffer, that has kept the level of H+ protons (and therefore pH) constant.

QUANTITATIVE

How is annual influences of freshwater affecting Tangaroa?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Analyse how salinity behaves, peaks, average, range under certain conditions of freshwater input/flow into the moana.

Method for Scoring
Determined post anaylsis. Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

The freshwater added at the surface dilutes seawater and reduces the salinity and so makes the seawater less dense. Species in the Ahuriri area have adapted to varying salinity over time and the continued measurement of salinity is important to understanding stresses on marine life & habitat.

Temperature

Temperature is an important factor to measure when assessing water quality and marine biology.

QUALITATIVE

Has temperatures changed the local seasonality of mahinga kai for any particular season?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Survey with whānau.

Method for Scoring
e.g Is the kōwahi or rākau blooming earlier or later specific to a time. Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

How is changing climatic conditions influencing the seasonal availability and distribution of mahinga kai/moana.

QUANTITATIVE

How is annual influences of Temperature affecting Tangaroa?

Health

Trend

graph

Method for Testing
Analyse annual temperature data.

Method for Scoring
Kaimātai moana rōpū to determine score.

Changes in temperature alter the amount and type of animals present – some animals cannot tolerate extreme changes in temperature and will avoid these areas (habitats). Changes in migration patterns – water temperature triggers the time of migration for breeding as mahinga kai travel to and from the sea/whanga & up and down the coast.

Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen is necessary to many forms of life including fish, invertebrates, bacteria and plants.

QUANTITATIVE

How are annual changes in Dissolved Oxygen (DO) affecting Tangaroa?

Health

Trend

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Method for Testing
Annual analysis of DO, peaks, average, range.

Method for Scoring
To be determined by the Kaimātai moana rōpū.

The impact of too low dissolved oxygen increases stress on aquatic life – mahinga kai and invertebrates require adequate oxygen levels, an essential for all aquatic life. Fish ‘breathe’ oxygen through their gills, and are able to absorb oxygen directly from the water into their bloodstream. A concentration of 5 mg/L DO is recommended for optimum fish health.

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